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Latest information on the Proposed Offshore Wind Farms for NSW


Underwater noise from offshore developments have the capacity to reduce the survival rate of marine animals

Research Source

Impact to harbour porpoises and harbour seals - studies demonstrated that porpoises and seals are able to detect the low-frequency sound generated by offshore wind-turbines.

Koschinski, S.; Culik, BM; Damsgaard Henriksen, O.; Tregenza, N.; Ellis, G.; Jansen, C.; Kathe, G. (1 January 2003). "Behavioural reactions of free-ranging porpoises and seals to the noise of a simulated 2 MW windpower generator". Marine Ecology Progress Series. 265: 263–273. doi:10.3354/meps265263.

Wake turbulences - air vortices caused by wind turbines - changes the flow and stratification of the water beneath them

Ute Daewel et al, Offshore wind farms are projected to impact primary production and bottom water deoxygenation in the North Sea, Communications Earth & Environment (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s43247-022-00625-0

Altered spatial distribution of marine ecosystem components. This includes the distributions of nutrient's, Phyto and zooplankton as well as biomass in the sediment, the food basis for many bottom-dwelling organisms. 

Ute Daewel et al, Offshore wind farms are projected to impact primary production and bottom water deoxygenation in the North Sea, Communications Earth & Environment (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s43247-022-00625-0

Significant migratory sea bird fatalities have been reported at marine wind farms situated close to breeding colonies.

Everaert, J., & Stienen, E. W. M. (2008). Impact of wind turbines on birds in Zeebrugge (Belgium). In D. L. Hawksworth & A. T. Bull (Eds.), Biodiversity and Conservation in Europe (pp. 103-117). Springer Netherlands.

Offshore wind farms act as barriers to travelling seabirds. Displacement from their favoured routes is likely to increase travel distances, causing greater energy expenditure and potentially impacting the survival of nestlings by lowering provisioning rates.

Petersen, I. K., Fox, A. D., & Clausager, I. (2003). Distribution and numbers of birds in Kattegat in relation to the proposed offshore wind farm south of Læsø–Ornithological impact assessment. Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity. National Environmental Research Institute, Ministry of Environment, Denmark.


Fox, A.D., Desholm, M., Kahlert, J., Christensen, T.K. and Krag Petersen, I. (2006), Information needs to support environmental impact assessment of the effects of European marine offshore wind farms on birds. Ibis, 148: 129-144.

Underwater cables emit an electromagnetic field. Brown Crabs (the UK's second most valuable crustacean catch) can't resist the electromagnetic pull of underwater power cables, changing the behaviour of the crabs into a stupor - impacting on their reproduction etc.

Scott, K., Harsanyi, P., Easton, B. A. A., Piper, A. J. R., Rochas, C. M. V., & Lyndon, A. R. (2021). Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) from Submarine Power Cables Can Trigger Strength-Dependent Behavioural and Physiological Responses in Edible Crab, Cancer pagurus (L.). Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 9(7), 776.

Altered behaviour of lobsters and skates when exposed to electromagnetic fields from a subsea HVDC cable. This impacts on how the animals will move around and be distributed in a cable EMF zone.

Hutchison, Z. L., P. Sigray, H. He, A. B. Gill, J. King, and C. Gibson, 2018.  Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Impacts on Elasmobranch (shark, rays, and skates) and American Lobster Movement and Migration from Direct Current Cables.  Sterling (VA): U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. OCS Study BOEM 2018-003

Offshore Wind Farms impacts on Mediterranean Marine Life.

Bray, L., Reizopoulou, S., Voukouvalas, E., Soukissian, T., Alomar, C., Vázquez-Luis, M., Deudero, S., Attrill, M. J., & Hall-Spencer, J. M. (2016). Expected Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Mediterranean Marine Life. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 4(1), 18.

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